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Significant Krakow Dates 

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Prussian homage in Krakow
In 1525 Prince of Prussia pays homage to the Polish king on Krakow's Grand Square.

Most Important Dates in the History of Krakow

8th century – Wislanie tribe set up their state with Krakow as its capital

999 – Krakow province incorporated into the House of Piasts’ realm

1000 – Krakow got its own bishop

1038 – King Casimir I the Renovator moved Poland’s capital to Krakow

1241 – Krakow demolished by Mongols

1257 – Duke Boleslaw the Shy endowed Krakow with self-government and trade privileges

1311 – mutiny of Krakow burghers mercilessly squashed by Prince Vladislav the Short

1320 – coronation of King Vladislav I the Short, first such event in Krakow’s Wawel Cathedral

1335 – King Casmir III the Great founded his brand-new city of Kazimierz near Krakow

1364 – King Casmir III the Great founded the Krakow university

1364 – Krakow summit of European monarchs

1386 – Krakow wedding of Poland’s queen Jadwiga and Lithuania’s grand duke Jagiello paves the way to the union of the two nations

1400 – renewal of the Krakow university thanks to the legacy of the Saint Queen Jadwiga

1447 – the beginning of the 45-year reign of King Casimir IV that make Poland one of the greatest European powers

1489 – Veit Stoss finished his stunning altarpiece for Krakow’s basilica of Virgin Mary's

1500 – start of the Renaissance renovation of the Wawel Royal Castle

1558 – regular mail-coach connection established between Krakow and Venice

1525 – the first prince of newly born Prussia paid homage to Poland’s King Sigismund I the Old on Krakow’s Grand Square (see picture above)

1574 – Henry I Valois, the first of Poland’s elective kings, ran away from Krakow after a 4-month reign to become France’s Henry III in Paris

1587 – Maximillian Hapsburg’s failed 6-week siege of Krakow made him drop his bid for the Polish throne

1609 – King Sigismund III Vasa moved his residence to Warsaw

1655 – Swedish army captured and devastated Krakow

1683 – King John III Sobieski led his Polish army from Krakow to Vienna, won it from besieging Turks, saved Christian Europe, and brought back booty now displayed in Krakow museums

1702-11 – Krakow was being captured and recaptured, on and on, and thus ruined by Swedish, German, Polish and Russian troops in the course of the Northern War

1734 – coronation of King August III, the last one in Krakow’s Wawel Cathedral

1768 – Krakow became a center of the first Polish uprising suppressed by Russian troops

1772-78 – Russian occupation of Krakow

1791 – Krakow enlarged by two adjacent towns, Kazimierz and Kleparz, plus settlements around the city

1793 – another Russian occupation of Krakow

1794 – Krakow was the center of national uprising led by Thaddeus Kosciuszko

1794 – Prussian army captured Krakow and stole Poland’s regalia that have been lost forever

1796-1809 – Austrians occupied Krakow

1809 – Krakow incorporated into the Duchy of Warsaw under the sway of France’s Napoleon I

1813-15 – another Russian occupation of Krakow

1815 – the Congress of Vienna created a tiny, independent Republic of Krakow

1816 – Krakow Scientific Society was launched, turned the Science Academy in 1872

1844 – construction of the Krakow-Myslowice railway

1846 – 9-day Krakow Revolution and subsequent Austrian annexation of the Krakow Republic

1848 – Second Krakow Revolution, Austrian bombardment of the city

1850 – 10-day fierce fire destroyed a quarter of Krakow

1866 – Vienna let Krakow to enjoy municipal self-government

1879 – Krakow National Museum, Poland’s best collection of art, was launched

1883 – a pair of Krakow’s university professors, Karol Olszewski and Zygmunt Wroblewski, achieved first ever liquefaction of oxygen, nitrogen and carbon dioxide

1884 – Krakow got its first telephone lines

1893 – Krakow’s renowned city theater moves to its brand-new, state-of-the-art building

1901 – Krakow got electric tramway (a year ahead of Vienna)

1910 – Krakow’s rapid territorial expansion began

1912 – Krakow’s first movie house opens

1914 – Polish Legions, a nucleus of future Polish army, were formed in Krakow by Jozef Pilsudski, Poland’s future head of state

1918 – Krakow was the first piece of the reborn free Poland when Polish authorities took control of the city by the end of October

1926 – the Krakow radio station went on air

1939 – the nazi Third Reich and the communist Soviet Union divided Poland between them and the former set up so called General Governorship with Krakow as its capital city. 

1942 – the German authorities set up Plaszow concentration camp in Krakow.

1943 – the nazis definitively liquidate the Jewish ghetto in Krakow on March 14th. 

1945 – the Soviet Red Army captured Krakow in January

1949 – giant steelworks built near Krakow with the adjoining Nowa Huta residential district

1979 – Krakow archbishop Karol Wojtyla became Pope John Paul II and visited his native city

1980 - workers went on strike at the Nowa Huta steelworks, which helped to start the Solidarity trade union

1989 – collapse of communism in Poland

1991 – the first democratic elections to the local government since 1939

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