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Krakow's City Walls 

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Krakow's barbican and the city walls

Medieval Fortifications of Krakow 

Medieval Krakow had round it two-mile-long walls with 39 towers and 8 gates. Their construction began in the late 13th century. The city walls proper were as high as ten meters and 2.5-meter thick. Alongside them additional lower walls ran. And an eight-meter-deep and 22-meter-wide moat protected both. 

In the first decades of the 19th century Krakow's imposing if outdated fortifications were largely pulled down. Fortunately, the main city gate called Brama Florianska survived together with three adjacent towers, the walls between them, the 16th-century city arsenal, and a giant barbican in front of them all. 


Brama Florianska, the main gate of the medieval Krakow 

The Brama Florianska gate, built about 1300 as a rectangular Gothic tower of wild stone, is 33.5 m tall. In the Middle Ages the Krakow furriers defended it. Its present baroque roof dates from 1694 and a big 16th-century bas-relief of St. Florian adorns the south wall. The famed 19th-century painter Jan Matejko designed a stone eagle on the other side of the gate tower. At the Brama Florianska gate Krakow's Royal Road begins. Here entered kings and princes, foreign envoys and guests of distinction, coronation processions and other parades, to move up the Florianska Street to the central Grand Square (Rynek Glowny), and further down the Grodzka Street to the Wawel Royal Castle

Tour of the Krakow fortifications 

From April through October visitors may tour the Brama Florianska gate tower and the adjacent medieval fortifications every day from 10:30 a.m. to 6 p.m. Entrance for the sightseers is situated in the Baszta Pasamonikow tower at the eastern end of Pijarska street at Szpitalna street. The 180-meter tour runs through a parapet walk via the neo-Gothic upstairs chapel of the Brama Florianska gate to the Brama Stolarska tower and it also includes the barbican (Barbakan). A normal ticket is eight zlotys


Wawel Royal Castle
Home to three dynasties of Poland's monarchs. Its stately halls and exquisite chambers are filled with priceless art, best period furniture and rare ancient objects. The collection of the 16th-century monumental Flemish
tapestries is matchless.

Wawel Cathedral
Poland's impressive national shrine shelters plenty of superb church art. Its
giant bell of 1520 ranks with the world's largest. Most Polish kings and their family members are buried in the cathedral, its chapels and crypts.

Grand Square
Krakow’s central Grand Square (Rynek Glowny), the largest plaza of medieval Europe and one of the world’s finest with its spectacular landmarks, has remained the hub of the city since the 13th century.

Basilica of the Virgin Mary's
The immense Gothic church, Krakow's principal temple since the 13th century, shelters the world's
greatest Gothic sculpture among its many excellent works of art

Cloth Hall
The world's oldest shopping mall has been in business for 700 years. The present Renaissance edifice dates from 1555.

Town Hall Tower
Krakow's leaning tower was built by the end of the 13th century.

Great Barbican
Awesome 500-year-old unmatched masterpiece of medieval military engineering

Planty Garden Ring
Park of 30 varied gardens among old trees round Krakow's Old Town historical district

Collegium Maius
15th-century impressive Grand College of the Krakow university where Copernicus once studied.

Krakow mummies
Picturesque 17th-century church and monastery shelter numerous naturally mummified bodies in their crypts.

Kanonicza Street
The most beautiful of Europe's ancient streets, arguably.

Krakow Old Town Historical District
Poland's prime tourist
attraction and a must-see in Central Europe boasts numerous world-class monuments, charming vistas, delightful atmosphere, and the best restaurants..

Wawel Royal Castle

Wawel Cathedral

Grand Square/strong>

Basilica of the Virgin Mary's

Cloth Hall

Town Hall Tower

Great Barbican

Planty Garden Ring

Collegium Maius

Krakow mummies

Kanonicza Street

Old Town map/strong

Tours of Krakow

Suggested Krakow itineraries



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